The exporter then quotes a contract price to the overseas buyer by loading the discount rate and commitment fee on the sales price of the goods to be exported and sign a contract with the forfeiter. Export takes place against documents guaranteed by the importer’s bank and discounts the bill with the forfeiter and presents the same to the importer for payment on due date.
In case of Indian exporters availing forfeiting facility, the forfeiting transaction is to be reflected in the following documents associated with an export transaction in the manner suggested below:
The forfeiting typically involves the following cost elements:
1. Commitment fee, payable by the exporter to the forfeiter ‘for latter’s’ commitment to execute a specific forfeiting transaction at a firm discount rate with in a specified time.
2. Discount fee, interest payable by the exporter for the entire period of credit involved and deducted by the forfaiter from the amount paid to the exporter against the availised promissory notes or bills of exchange.
Forfeiting provides the banks following benefits:
Definition of Factoring
Definition of factoring is very simple and can be defined as the conversion of credit sales into cash. Here, a financial institution which is usually a bank buys the accounts receivable of a company usually a client and then pays up to 80% of the amount immediately on agreement. The remaining amount is paid to the client when the customer pays the debt. Examples includes factoring against goods purchased, factoring against medical insurance, factoring for construction services etc.
Characteristics of Factoring
1. The normal period of factoring is 90150 days and rarely exceeds more than 150 days.
2. It is costly.
3. Factoring is not possible in case of bad debts.
4. Credit rating is not mandatory.
5. It is a method of offbalance sheet financing.
6. Cost of factoring is always equal to finance cost plus operating cost.
Different Types of Factoring
1. Disclosed Factoring
In disclosed factoring, client’s customers are aware of the factoring agreement.
Disclosed factoring is of two types:
Recourse factoring: The client collects the money from the customer but in case customer don’t pay the amount on maturity then the client is responsible to pay the amount to the factor. It is offered at a low rate of interest and is in very common use.
Nonrecourse factoring: In nonrecourse factoring, factor undertakes to collect the debts from the customer. Balance amount is paid to client at the end of the credit period or when the customer pays the factor whichever comes first. The advantage of nonrecourse factoring is that continuous factoring will eliminate the need for credit and collection departments in the organization.
In undisclosed factoring, client's customers are not notified of the factoring arrangement. In this case, Client has to pay the amount to the factor irrespective of whether customer has paid or not.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Starting Export Introduction